Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana are pioneers in the field of cognitive science, co-developing several influential theoretical concepts that relate closely to Enactive Dao. Here are five of them:
Autopoiesis: This term, coined by Maturana and Varela, refers to the self-producing and self-maintaining nature of living systems. An autopoietic system constantly recreates itself, maintaining its identity despite continuous material flux. This echoes Enactive Dao's emphasis on the flow of life and change, reinforcing the idea that we continuously evolve while maintaining a sense of self.
Enaction: Varela proposed the enactive approach, emphasizing the role of embodiment and action in cognition. The enactive approach posits that cognition emerges through a person's interactions with their environment. This relates to Enactive Dao's principle of engaged practice, suggesting that understanding and wisdom arise from active participation in the world, not just intellectual contemplation.
Structural Coupling: This concept refers to the dynamic interaction between an organism and its environment, whereby each influences the other's evolution over time. This idea parallels Enactive Dao's principle of ecological awareness, highlighting the interconnectedness of all beings and the environment, and the reciprocal influence we have on each other.
Operational Closure: Despite constant interaction with the environment, autopoietic systems maintain a certain operational closure, which means they internally determine their own organization. This concept aligns with Enactive Dao's emphasis on balance and harmony, suggesting that while we engage with and are influenced by our environment, we also have the capacity to maintain our own equilibrium.
Cognition as Sense-making: Varela and Maturana view cognition not as the processing of information from the outside world but as a process of sense-making based on the organism's history of structural coupling. This idea complements Enactive Dao's principle of embracing change and flow, implying that our understanding and experience of the world are continually changing based on our ongoing interactions with the environment.
These theoretical concepts of Varela and Maturana, embodying the dynamic, interconnected, and active nature of life, provide a solid scientific framework that complements and enriches the principles of Enactive Dao.